About GPS Cancer™
GPS Cancer™ is a unique, comprehensive molecular test available through NantHealth. GPS Cancer integrates whole genome (DNA) sequencing, whole transcriptome (RNA) sequencing, and quantitative proteomics, providing oncologists with a comprehensive molecular profile of a patient’s cancer to inform personalized treatment strategies.
What does “GPS” stand for?
“GPS” stands for Genomic Proteomic Spectrometry, which describes different aspects of this comprehensive molecular test. Specifically, the test employs:
- Genomic: whole genome sequencing of over 20,000 genes and 3 billion base pairs
- Proteomic: whole transcriptome sequencing of over 200,000 RNA transcripts
- Spectrometry: quantitative proteomics based on mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM).
Why whole genome sequencing?
Genomics is the study of the structure and function of the genome—that is, the full set of DNA in a cell—and is at the core of precision cancer care. Through DNA sequencing, it is possible to better understand what alterations (e.g., base pair changes, deletions, duplications, insertions, etc.) cause a cell to become cancerous, and ultimately, help identify targeted treatments.
Today, many available tests employ limited gene panels of 10-400 genes. With limited information from these smaller panels, oncologists may not have a comprehensive profile of the patient's cancer. On the other hand, GPS Cancer sequences the whole genome of 20,000+ genes and 3 billion base pairs, providing oncologists with an expansive view of alterations to inform personalized treatment strategies for patients.
Why tumor-normal matching?
Most genomic analysis tests employ a reference genome against which a patient’s tumor DNA is compared to identify alterations. However, this reference genome is typically derived from a group of patient samples, which may not be representative of the diversity of the population. GPS Cancer offers “tumor-normal” whole genome sequencing, allowing comparison of tumor mutations to the patient's own normal blood sample to identify the genetic variants that drive cancer progression in that individual.
Why RNA sequencing?
DNA is the blueprint for RNA, and RNA is the blueprint for proteins. Sequencing RNA provides oncologists with insight into inferred protein expression. If the alterations identified in the patient’s tumor DNA are not identified in the tumor RNA, they will have no biological impact. Alterations in RNA may result in changes in protein expression, which will impact the treatment options for patients. GPS Cancer combines the power of both whole genome (DNA) and whole transcriptome (RNA) sequencing of more than 200,000 RNA transcripts.
Why protein analysis?
Cancer drugs often target proteins or require proteins to be effective. Knowing how much of each specific protein is present in a tumor can help the oncologist to better understand which chemotherapies and targeted therapies may be effective. Protein expression data can provide physicians with additional molecular information to inform a personalized treatment plan for their patients.
GPS Cancer leverages the power of quantitative proteomics to measure the expression of specific therapeutically associated proteins. Using proprietary extraction - Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM), GPS Cancer reports the amounts of clinically-relevant proteins present in a patient’s tumor sample in units of attomoles per microgram. Combined with information about the inferred protein expression generated through whole transcriptome sequencing analysis, oncologists have great visibility into whether a patient may benefit from specific therapies.
For a list of proteins analyzed with GPS Cancer, click here.